Producers: Coral reefs are a home to both chemoautotrophs and autotrophs capable of photosynthesis. Ex: Phytoplankton, Coralline Algae, Filamentous Turf Algae, Zooxanthellae (creates a symbiotic relationship with the coral), and many species of seaweed Consumers: Primary- The most abundant primary consumer is Zooplankton though the amount of Zooplankton can be 15-65% lower than in open waters. Other examples of primary consumers are invertebrate larvae, benthic grazers (e.g. bivalves, gastropods, tunicates, sponges, polychaete and feather duster worms), some corals, sea urchins, some crabs, green sea turtles, and herbivorous fish. Secondary- Four main groups- coral feeders (divided into four sub-groups based on the type of coral they eat), benthic feeders (ex-mussels, gastropods, and worms), fish feeders (mostly made up of other larger fish), and plankton feeders (sessile animals such as coral). Tertiary- Large reef fish such as dolphins and seals.
Decomposers: Decomposers are very important in coral reef ecosystems due to the heavy need for nitrogen processing. The main decomposer present is bacteria.